Academic journal and communications

Each of LAPIS session is full of various of publishing knowledge. Today’s session mainly focus on scholar publishing, the history of journal publishing, serial crisis, peer review and many scholarly communications. Thanks Ernesto and his slides!

Scholarly publishing begin from 1660s in UK and “in crisis” from the 1980s, which amazed me cause I thought it in crisis around recent years. Another thing is that it be treated as opposed to “trade” publishing. Actually I thought it is also a kind of “trade” publishing before. Scholarly publishers are mainly commercial publishers, university presses, learned societies and non-profit organizations while readers are usually academic and research libraries, few large public libraries and individuals. From 1980s the serial crisis happened more or less because of increased journal price, which highly beyond consumer price index. As for the reasons, price are the dominant reason why people cancel journal subscriptions. Low usage, program needs changed, budget cuts, format incompatibility are the reasons as well. I feel it is a shame to cancel subscriptions just because of the high cost of knowing(38% of all reasons are linking to money issue). In this case maybe more methods should be put forward to make sure every audience I mentioned above could still read scholarly publishing. However, I am not sure if this survey contains online academic journals. I suspect the result will be different if they are contained.

 

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Notes about the history of book trade and copyright

Session 4 of LAPIS we talked about copyright, piracy, book trade in UK and intellectual property. I learned the brief history of book trade.

The mid 16th century: there a are fragment trade(many small firms while few large firms).

↓↓

18th century: modern publishing date from the late 18th century in Britain. Firms mainly sale books and book printing was a small part of the printing business, printing and retail have not been developed.

↓↓

19th century: mechanization trade. Book price go down and a market created. Book printing become one branch of the trade.

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20th century:

  • A big change in book printing. More novel printing press design and mechanical typesetting system set up cause of technology development.
  • western alphabets, symbol and image developed with lithography and any kind of material could be represented on the same plate.
  • Letterpress printing was popular after the mid of 20 century.
  • Computer typesetting system occur and be used in the newspaper industry after the 1970s.

↓↓

21st century:

  • Many social media: Facebook, YouTube Twitter and Vine.
  • There is space for small and independent entities in UK.
  • Publishing field are increasing develop and the rise of applications in web are pretty popular: Amazon online book shop, API, Java, etc.
  • With the development of publishing, copyright become necessary and protect the author from public use.
  • Copyright laws need rethinking in mixed culture around the world nowadays.

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Authorship, Amateurs and Journalism

In the third LAPIS session we talked about several topics: what is an author? Authorship and amateur journalism as well as does digital journalism in golden age or stone age now.

One article(What is an author?) from Foucault is pretty long but enlightenment and make me think. He analysed the notion of author and writing and put forward many questions, for example, whether everything an author wrote or left behind is part of his work? Does it really matter what the author was trying to say? And analyse the functions about author’s name and discourse issues. I never thought the issue about authorship and this is a good article all around the “author” and I got many new and interesting ideas about it.

In the second half of the session we listened to the lecture talked by Eliza Anyangwe(the Guardian Professional Networks) about digital journalism and issues of authorship and publishing, which gave us an insight into the new environment and challenges journalism facing. From the bullet points she showed I feel it is really a thought provoking topic and hope that journalism can increase the pace of change and have a bright perspective in the future.

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From the Knowledge Economy to the Sharing Economy

In the second session of LAPIS we were talking about many interesting topics, from the history of printing, various types of media to what influence media and advanced technologies to people’s reading and printed books.

Before the session I read the resources Ernesto provided in Moodle, which let me know the idea of knowledge economy. It was defined by Drucker’s(1969) as the role of the ‘knowledge worker’ in manufacturing industries. The idea of the knowledge economy has been used to foreground discussions. In addition, the sharing economy includes many aspects, like the shared creation, production, distribution and consumption of goods and services by different people and organizations. These are the two new concepts I learned from this session.

Moreover, another interesting questions putting forward: how to decide when and which kind of books we read? Original books or translated books? For me, I tend to read original books if books are English or Chinese when I need to do academic research, because the first hand resources always more accurate and makes research more professional and high quality. However, I have no idea about books with other languages. In this case I have to read translated books(or learn more languages). If I just read for leisure, I may read translated books cause it more easy and quick to obtain the ideas. Overall, no matter what kind of books we choose, I believe both of them have the value. Moreover, according to my observation, some translated books, especially worked by translation experts may more adopted by people with their languages. In this way I think publishing house should give enough space for both of these books.

We also focus on the concept of disruptive technologies, which change how we consume information. The term “disruptive technology” was coined by Clayton Christensen to explain what happens when a new form of technology displaces an established technology and shakes up the industry or a ground-breaking product that creates a completely new industry. I think it happened more and more often nowadays for more new technology appeared, so people should consider what happening more dialectically.

 

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Publishing in the modern world

I am very excited for the second semester of my MSc library science because I still have a chance to continue my posts and practice English writing every week. Different from the blog that began in DITA last term, it will now continue with a new course in LAPIS(Libraries and Publishing in an Information Society). I am pretty curious about publishing field and hope I can try my best to obtain the knowledge about contemporary publishing and libraries. The first session focus on some definitions and overview of publishing, including the development of publishing, how advanced technology has affected the publishers and the public, etc.
I am deeply impressed with the videos the lecturer showed to us. It was pretty unique that the text showed with different order have totally opposite meaning, aimed to demonstrate how content and form differs. The trend for reading abstracts and reviews of an article instead of the full content are more and more popular. However, is it possible that we just got a small part of the whole text and even misunderstanding the full content by doing this? It is an issue should be considered.
In addition, I have known that publishing is the process of production and dissemination of literature, music, or information(Ernesto,2015). The definition of publishing has changed within thousand of years. It has already expanded to a variety of products from literature to any type of information available.
“The author as producer” wrote by Walter Benjamin also be discussed. He discussed the separations between genres, writer and poet, the scholar and the popularizer, as well as author and reader. How to face with technique in publishing also be discussed. I am still reading this address and hope to find something enlightenment for final coursework.

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Just want to write one blog with my thoughts about DITA

This Monday is my last time to seat with my classmates and lecturers in the lab to do DITA lab exercise. This meant it was the start of my final week of the first term of my MSc in library science. I can’t believe how quickly these 10 weeks have gone by and I have lived in London by my own for 3 months! After this module I have a great command of Twitter and WordPress blog, also have attempted many interesting tools to analysis, search, collect and archive data easily, and visualise the data we research effectively, which is benefit to write my final module assignments.
Thanks Ernesto for introducing me a meaningful and interesting way, which can show people (especially myself) what I obtained and thought from this module. This is my first time to bravely build my own blog about LIS and written down my thought. I think it is a great idea to record great thought and points in daily study and it is a brilliant lifestyle! Also, thanks my classmates who always help me and have made the whole experience enjoyable and always could give me some clarify ideas when I have been struggling to write my own blog.
Everything I have been heard and seen and learning will definitely beneficial to my future job, even to my whole life. Because of language problems, I feel I am lack of communicating with my classmates and lectures in the first term. Hope things will be better next term.
Thank you all # citylis and happy Christmas!

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Data Mining with Old Bailey Online and Digital Humanities Lab

In this week’s DITA lab exercise, we were asked to use the Old Bailey Online and Digital Humanities Lab from Utrech University to do data mining. The concept of “data mining” refers to the process of discovering and analyzing data in order to extract information from a data set and transform it into an understandable structure for further use.

Processing:
This is my first time to use Old Bailey and I am curious about it. This site provides a digital collection of the Old Bailey project from 1674 to 1913 and contains about 197,000 trials, which is a pretty big collection. I tried the original online search firstly. We can see from the following image, you can search with different keywords, name or time period etc.

a

I searched sexual offence from January 1700 to December 1900. During this 200 years, there are 5509 results recorded:

b

Next I turned to the Old Bailey API. I also searched cases 200 years from 1700 to 1900 and defendant gender is female, offence catagory is sexual offences and male as victim gender. It turned out to be just 232 hits, less than the results in Old Bailey Online search:

c

The API also allows us to extract dataset to either Zotero or Voyant Tools for further analysis and research and there are different results when I chose “send to Voyant” by 10 and 50 separately:

d

Also, “married” as a keyword showed different in word trends, summary and words in documents parts:

e

Analysis:
The Old Bailey API is structured in a similar way to the original Old Bailey Online search. Both of them present similar categories for searching. However, there indeed are some different at the same time.
• The original Old Bailey Online search allow you to search the whole records accounts. However, I cannot find some more search options, like defendant gender, victim gender verdict category etc. we can also know it form different records account. So I think original Old Barley search is for basic search while the Old Bailey API is more specifically.
• After obtained the results, user can do a further analysis of the data by exporting them to Voyant in API. It has been created the dynamic exploration of results. However for original online search, it just records and users cannot extract the text into text analysis and mining.

Finally, I tried digital humanities lab. I chose ”Circulation of Knowledge and Learned Practices in the 17th_century Dutch Republic (CKCC)”. The aim of this project is to online access to ancient sources, it open to researchers from various disciplines all over the world.
I think both of the Old Bailey Online and Digital Humanities Lab are working for data analysis and mining from big collections. They are both interesting and useful and give us a chance to dig into ancient records and documents.

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